The human hand in the origin of life implies a great potential, but also a set of moral considerations. The eugenics, which is the implementation of the study of the laws of biological inheritance for the improvement of human beings, can have a positive sense, but some ethical problem. Today, what we call eugenics positive implies a vaccine against future diseases of which is going to be born. The reproductive technologies have advanced to overcome fertility problems and minimize risks to health. In the latter case, the selection of embryos by Genetic Diagnosis Pre-implantacional (GDP) represents a very important step forward.
This technique consists in the study and monitoring of embryos after an in vitro fertilization. After a development of five or six days, a genetic analysis precedes the transfer to the uterus of the mother of the one embryo that present less risk of developing diseases.
One of the central issues of GDP is that, despite that is referred to in the public health, are mostly private clinics which is carried out by its high cost. The cases in which it is recommended are varied, including women or couples at risk of transmitting disease, with a history of previous abortions, in vitro fertilization without success, or those with cancer predisposition genetic origin. With regard to the physical problems “the risk of damage to the embryo by the fact of doing a biopsy, which is the system that is used is less than 1%”. The health of the infants with employment of GDP, pointing from the Dexeus, one of the pioneers, is comparable to those made without it.
With regard to the legal framework, Spain has always permitted this type of techniques, with limitations. The Law on Assisted Reproduction of 1988 indicates that “any intervention on the pre-embryo vivo, in vitro, with diagnostic purposes may not have another purpose that the valuation of its viability and the detection of hereditary diseases”, i.e. to prevent pathologies or facilitate the pregnancy, never for the generation of a human being on demand.
The rules change according to the countries of Europe. In Germany the GDP is prohibited, as well as in Switzerland and Austria. France is limited to cases of serious diseases and Denmark, Sweden and Norway, marked a high threshold in the severity of the pathology, as is the absence of a specific treatment.
In general, in the world, the human intervention in the generation of life fears in the more conservative sectors, mainly in countries with a religious component important in its population.
The rapid evolution of the research may lead to changes in the years to come. Fernando Abellán, specialist in law reproductive, points out that there are lobbies exert pressure for legislation which is more lax in the advanced countries. But that it is also important to generate new consensus in the field to bring new proposals to public administrations, with innovative techniques, safe and effective.
The landscape can be conflictual. If you do not limit the margins of GDP, the reality may be close to the fiction of the film ‘Gattaça’, with genetic changes that divided into castes to the population. Also, according to Abellán, there is the problem of democratization. “Techniques will be expensive and difficult for these therapies avant-garde to reach all those in need”.
The progress modifies, each day, the reality and leads to improvement in humanity.